What are the Steps of CPR?

CPR, or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, is an important medical procedure that can dramatically improve the survival rate of cardiac arrest victims. Additionally, CPR can be used on victims of smoke inhalation, near-drowning events, electrocution, or choking. As such a versatile and relatively straightforward procedure, it’s no wonder so many people are earning their CPR certification. By learning how to safely and effectively perform CPR, you can gain the knowledge and confidence to save a life. 

But what exactly does CPR involve? Most of us are familiar with the chest compressions and rescue breaths, but there are actually more steps involved to ensure you perform this procedure as effectively as possible. Here, we take a closer look at this important life-saving procedure and walk through the primary steps involved in performing CPR. We also discuss how you can now earn your CPR certification or CPR recertification through 100 percent online courses. Learning CPR has truly never been more accessible. 


Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a medical procedure that combines chest compressions and rescue breaths to stabilize a victim of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). While designed as a temporary measure that should be performed until medical personnel arrives, CPR is incredibly important and can drastically improve the victim’s survival rate. CPR is so important because hundreds of thousands of cardiac arrest episodes occur outside of a hospital and far from professional medical help.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

When a bystander performs CPR, this keeps the blood and oxygen circulating throughout the body. If the brain and other organs go even just a few minutes without oxygen, serious and irreparable damage can be inflicted. According to data, over 475,000 American lives are lost to cardiac arrest every year with millions more across the globe. If more bystanders were trained and certified in CPR, this number could be reduced and lives could be saved. 


In addition to chest compressions and rescue breaths, there are some additional steps of CPR that ensure you perform this procedure safely and effectively. Here’s a brief review of the important steps involved in performing CPR:

1. Call 911.

Before beginning CPR, you should always immediately call 911 for professional medical assistance. While CPR can save someone’s life, it’s intended as a temporary measure to keep blood and oxygen circulating throughout the body. Since CPR isn’t intended to completely treat a cardiac arrest victim, you’ll want to be sure that paramedics are on the way to the scene.

2. Assess the emergency.

After you’ve called 911, assess the emergency to ensure that you don’t put yourself or others in danger. Once you’ve determined it’s safe, you can quickly assess the victim to determine whether or not CPR is needed. If the victim is unconscious, unresponsive, or unable to breathe normally, begin the steps of CPR immediately. 

3. Open the airway.

First, you’ll need to position the victim so you can effectively perform CPR. Make sure the victim is flat on their back, but be careful about turning them over if you think there is a head or neck injury. With the victim on their back,

4. Check for breathing.

After opening the airway, you need to check the victim’s breathing. Place your ear just over their mouth and listen for about ten seconds. If you cannot detect a breath (or they’re only occasionally gasping for air), begin CPR. If the victim is unresponsive but breathing regularly, you do not need to perform CPR. However, you should check their breathing regularly until paramedics arrive. 

5. Chest compressions.

To begin chest compressions, place one hand over the other and interlock your fingers. Place your hands on the center of their chest, just below the breastbone, and straighten your arms. Press firmly at least two inches deep at a compression rate of 100 times per minute. Allow the chest to rise between compressions.

6. Rescue breaths.

Following chest compressions, you should provide two rescue breaths to the victim. Ensure the airway is still open by tilting the head back and slightly lifting their chin. Then, pinch their nose shut and place your mouth completely over the victim’s mouth. Watch their chest to make sure it’s rising following a rescue breath. If not, you may need to reposition the airway.

7. Repeat the cycle.

Continue the cycle of chest compressions and rescue breaths until medical personnel arrives on the scene. If someone else is also trained in CPR, you can take turns to ensure you don’t become exhausted. 


In our day and age, there’s no limit to what you can do and learn online. Now, this even includes learning CPR. Through online CPR certification courses, you can become fully trained and officially certified in CPR and other life-saving procedures. Even better, you can do this all without ever leaving the comfort of your home. What more could you ask for?

Compared to the traditional, in-person model of learning CPR, there are many benefits to earning your CPR certification or recertification online. With online classes, you can earn your certification faster and often at a more affordable rate. These classes are also designed with you, the student, in mind, which means you can learn at your own pace by starting or stopping a lesson at any time. This means that online CPR classes are ideal for those already working full time or anyone with an already hectic schedule. 


Cardiac arrest continues to be one of the leading causes of death in the United States. By learning CPR and earning your CPR certification, you can help combat this public health crisis by arming yourself with the skills, knowledge, and confidence to make a difference in the event of a medical emergency. 

Enrolling in CPR classes online is one of the most effective (and affordable) ways to learn this important life-saving skill. Online CPR classes make learning CPR more accessible by bringing the classroom and lessons to you. Without having to worry about scheduling classes and showing up to a rec center, an online CPR course works for anyone’s schedule. There’s simply never been a better (and more important) time to become CPR certified. 

Laser Tattoo Removal Procedure How to Remove a Tattoo

Tattoo implantation is trendy these days so is the process of removal. The biggest question of concern here is how to Remove a Tattoo? 

When an individual decides to get a tattoo on the body, he or she feels that they have made the best decision of their life. But now that they have inked the tattoo permanently, it is quite difficult to remove it from the skin, when an individual wants to remove it. Don’t worry, at tattoo removal Sydney, clients get a safe and reliable solution to remove a tattoo.

remove a tattoo

There are three main methods to remove a tattoo from the skin. They are 

  1. Laser tattoo removal Treatment: one of the most effective treatments to remove multi-colored tattoos with the least side effects. Doctors use different wavelengths of light to target colors according to their wavelength. An experienced doctor is required for a consultation to get the right recommended for the type of laser to be used to remove a tattoo. 
  1. Surgical Excision: In this method, surgeons remove the outer layer of the skin using abrasive tools to remove the tattoo present on the skin. 
  1. Dermabrasion or Salabrasion: This treatment required doctors to use chemicals to remove a tattoo from the outer layers of the skin. 

Tattoo Removal Process is Easy or Difficult

Most patients who undergo tattoo removal treatment claim that the entire process is very difficult to handle. It is difficult to remove a tattoo once it is implanted on the skin. Why? There are so many reasons to explain why tattoo removal is not easy and a very difficult task. 

When tattoo ink pigments of different colors are implanted on the skin, there is an uneven color density. The reason is each color has its penetration level and go deeper into the skin depending on different depth levels. Usually, it is seen that black or blue colored tattoos have a lower penetration level and are easier to remove as compared to other colors. Green and yellow ink penetrates deeper than other colors so take more time or is difficult to completely remove the tattoo from the skin. 

All tattoo removal treatments require multiple sessions to remove the tattoo completely. Whatever a patient chooses between laser tattoo removal, dermabrasion, or excision, he or she has to go through multiple sessions. Because with each session, the ink of different penetration levels is removed. 

Under no circumstances, a patient can choose to leave one or another session of the entire tattoo removal procedures. Many people try “home remedies” at first but end up contacting professionals. Trying to remove a tattoo at home is not only dangerous but also increases the chances of side effects like scarring and infection. It is advised not to try any unscientific method or follow home remedies.

Contact your physician and he or she will recommend the number of sessions as per the type of tattoo implanted on the skin. 

Tattoo removal using laser light 

The laser tattoo removal technique is one of the effective and safest tattoo removal techniques that have been around for a while. With the advancement of science and technology, the methodology of laser tattoo removal has improved and the number of side effects has reduced. 

Laser tattoo removal Procedure: 

A high-intensity laser light breaks down the pigments in the ink of the colored tattoo. Laser beams target ink pigments at a different wavelength. Black ink is easiest to remove because black color is known to absorb all colors. For other colors, a patient must seek consultation on the type of laser that may be used to treat the tattoo. 

The entire laser tattoo removal process includes multiple sessions depending on the size, shape, location, type, and depth of the tattoo. 

Possible side effects of laser tattoo removal

As said, laser tattoo removal is the safest of all, it does have fewer side effects. 

Patients can relax because this method has fewer side effects as compared to other methods available in the market. Here are a few side effects one can expect from the treatment:

  • Skin Infections:Laser tattoo removal uses laser light so after treatment, a patient may see skin infections and permanent scars.
  • Hypo or Hyperpigmentation: The treated area and the area surrounding the tattoo may get fairer (hypopigmentation) or darker (hyperpigmentation).
  • Skin Darkening: Cosmetic tattoo removal like a tattoo on eyeliners or lip liners may darken the area in the removal process. 

What Research says about CBD Products

CBD is a form of Cannabinoid that has been used for numerous medical purposes. There are multiple articles that state that Cannabinoid has numerous benefits in our body. Cannabinoids have shown significant results in reducing pain, depression, anxiety, and other major diseases. Some studies suggest that cannabinoids are effective in reducing Alzheimer’s. Moreover, cannabinoids have shown significant results in reducing heart problems and cancer-related problems and demonstrated improvement in the sexual urges of a person with impotence.

However, these results are kept inside the lab only. Multiple countries are opposing these results, and still, the use of CBD is controversial. Moreover, we can say that CBD has proven results but do not have proven acceptance.

CBD Products

Source: Vitafoods Insights

CBD constitution

CBD, Hemp, or Marijuana all comes from the same plant. The cannabis plant is the primary source for these things. However, CBD oil is directly extracted from the Hemp plant. Although there is no genetic difference between Hemp and Marijuana, there are specific physiological differences between them. Both the plants consist of THC as their primary chemical. The THC levels between the Hemp plant and marijuana is somewhat different. Moreover, this difference in the chemical constitution, the kick of THC, is distinct in both. However, numerous researches suggests that THC levels are significantly lower in CBD oils, which is why people recommend CBD oil for various medical purposes.

However, hemp oil and CBD oil is different from each other. According to experts, the CBD oil is directly extracted from the flower ore seeds, whereas; the hemp oil is removed from the seeds of the removed flower. However, there is confusion between hemp oil and CBD oil; therefore, it is strongly suggested that you see the label of the product that you are opting for.

Benefits of CBD

  1. CBD as performance Booster

There are various reasons for a person to see a reduction in their performance. However, you can see the dehydration you face when you run or walk for a longer duration. Moreover, with that dehydrated water, the minerals and vitamins are also shredded; therefore, consuming CBD at a limit can help you overcome laziness.

  1. CBD as a health booster

Numerous health conditions can worry you. Therefore, if you are consuming CBD, you can be assured that you will be protected from health-related and cancer-related problems. Moreover, CBD can help you to have a sound sleep.

Uses of CBD

  • CBD has been tested on numerous blood types, but there are no significant results of reducing diseases like Alzheimer’s
  • CBD has been tested on numerous animals, which showed a reduction in osteoarthritis.
  • The use of CBD has shown results in reducing cancer-causing elements.
  • CBD has shown results in reducing the pain caused by seizures

Bottom Line

CBD is a Cannabinoid that you can use in numerous medical uses. Many doctors prescribe CBD to help to relieve many harmful symptoms in our body. However, there are still arguments going on to establish a proven result of whether to use CBD or not.

Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pains

A Cannabinoid is a natural substance that is extracted from the cannabis plant. Cannabis plant releases phytocannabinoid that are effective for neurotransmission, depression reliever, and joy-giving medicine. Some evidence shows that Cannabinoid has several effects in reducing heart problems, controlling cancer, stimulating sleep, and many more. However, if you want to know about how Cannabinoid helps in pain relief, then visit revive20.com.

However, if you are suffering from severe pain (chronic or acute), you can be assured that a Cannabinoid can help you manage that pain. Several types of research show that consuming cannabinoids in a controlled form can help you control pain. Nowadays, cannabinoids are considered to be one of the most effective medicines in reducing migraines and arthritis. The cannabinoids do more than 90% of pain treatments around the world.


Source: MDPI

History of Painkilling and CBD

Some evidence shows that a Cannabinoid is used as a pain-relieving medicine for more than 1, 1000 years. One of the earliest evidence of Cannabinoid as a pain-relieving medicine is dated back to around 2600AD, where Emperor Shen Lung used it as an analgesic for treating leg pain. Moreover, Emperor Shen Lung is considered the father of Chinese medicine and has designed many kinds of medications that have helped all Chinese people.

Nowadays, we are stepping into a generation where everything is being verified before using it. Therefore, the uses of Cannabinoids have now been tested its use. However, significant results show that cannabinoids can help treat pain and other wide range of medical problems. However, there are still many countries where Cannabinoid or marijuana is illegal. People are still confused about the wide ranges of medical treatments that a Cannabinoid can provide.

Benefits of CBD in pain treatment

  • In a study, CBD has shown a reduction in arthritis pain and other physical pains. In another research on animals, CBD has shown to reduce mental pain.
  • CBD has shown significant results in boosting the metabolism of our body. However, CBD has a receptor that binds with the endocannabinoid, the natural metabolic enhancer of our body.
  • CBD has shown significant results in blocking the inflammation channels of our body. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that CBD has been shown to regulate pain in spinal levels.

Benefits of THC in killing pain

  • THC has shown clinical results in reducing many kinds of pain. Moreover, patients with AIDS and other Sexual problems that are immune to other pain killers are given THC as their medication.
  • THC has a receptor that can bind itself to the CB1 receptor. Moreover, the CB1 receptor has numerous antagonists, affecting the stimulation of serotonergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic systems.

Bottom Line

CBD is natural stuff that is extracted from the cannabis plant. People believe that consuming CBD can negatively impact their bodies; however, much research shows that CBD can have helped our boy in many ways. CBD is useful to suppress nerve pain; CBD can reduce heart problems; mostly, CBD has shown significant lowering autoimmune problems.

How to deal with peptic ulcer disease?

Peptic ulcers occur when the lining of the stomach and small intestine gets open sores. These open sores induce a lot of pain and discomfort and are sometimes a source of bleeding as well. Read on to know more about peptic ulcer disease and how you can prevent it:

What causes peptic ulcer disease?

As with the pathophysiology of almost all the gastric diseases, eating habits and lifestyle play a vital role. An important cause of peptic ulcer disease also lies with what we tend to eat. Ulcers form in the gastric lining when there is excessive production of gastric acid, or there is breakdown of the protective mucus layer. As a result, the stomach lining gets irritated by the acidic environment, and inflammation and pain ensues.

In our setting, Helicobacter pylori infections are a major cause of peptic ulcer disease. H.pylori spreads through eating unclean food and water, as well as, close contact. While many people who are carriers of H.pylori do not get ulcers, in some, it can break down the mucus layer and raise the amount of acid. This can end up causing severe and resistant to treatment peptic ulcer disease, which often returns despite treatment.

peptic ulcer disease

Frequent and indiscriminate use of painkillers also leads to peptic ulcer disease. NSAIDs like Aspirin can interfere with the protective mucus barrier over the stomach lining, which makes it vulnerable for the stomach acid. This also occurs with other NSAIDs like naproxen and ibuprofen, as they have the same mechanism of action, and occurs more often when these drugs are taken for a long time. For this reason, self-medication is often not a great idea, as seemingly harmless drugs can also have potential adverse effects people are unaware of.

Other types of painkillers like acetaminophen, however, do not have the same adverse effect on the stomach lining and are often prescribed as an alternate.

Stress can be an unavoidable risk factor and causative agent for peptic ulcer disease, as can be eating spicy food and smoking cigarettes.

What are the symptoms of peptic ulcer disease?

With excessive gastric acid production, there is discomfort in the belly, especially on an empty stomach. There can also be acid reflux in a recumbent position, especially at night, or on lying down shortly after eating. In severe cases, there can be a grinding pain under the breastbone, which goes away on taking antacids, but returns when the effect of the drug wears off.

Small ulcers more often only cause pain. However, big ulcers can be problematic and can show alarming signs like blood in vomitus, bloody or dark stools, or weight loss. If any of the aforementioned symptoms are observed, you should visit a hospital which has a multi-speciality panel as soon as possible. Mid City hospital is a good option in this regard.

How to manage peptic ulcer disease?

The goal of therapy in peptic ulcer disease is: to relieve the symptoms of the patient, and deal with the cause of excessive acid production. Small ulcers can heal on their own, but some ulcers can be recurrent if proper care is not taken. In most cases, treatment is tailored according to the cause behind the ulcer.

In case of H.pylori infection, a mix of antibiotics are used to kill the bacteria. Triple therapy is used—with two kinds of antibiotics, and one proton pump inhibitor, for some time for complete eradication of bacteria. Any interruption in treatment can lead to recurrence of infection, therefore, adherence and compliance are essential for treatment to be successful.

If the cause behind peptic ulcers disease is too much use of NSAIDs and painkillers, then their use must be tapered for relief. Reducing the dose of painkiller can also be effective; you can talk to your healthcare provider to switch your medication to one that does not disturb the gastric mucosa.

There are certain medications for peptic ulcer disease that help to reduce the secretion of gastric acid. These include drugs called: proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine blockers. PPIs help in reducing the secretion of gastric acid, and therefore protect the lining of stomach and duodenum, and allow it time to heal. In fact, PPIs are also used in fighting H.pylori infection. PPIs are great for managing peptic ulcer disease; however, they too aren’t without side effects. PPIs should be used only for the duration of the period they have been advised by the healthcare provider and not longer. Studies show that in Pakistan, many people self-medicate with PPIs, which is not a good thing in the long term. Examples of PPIs include: omeprazole, esomeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole.

Histamine receptor blockers also help to reduce the secretion of acid through blocking the histamine pathway. They also work in a similar manner to PPIs and give time for the peptic ulcer to heal while there is reduced secretion of acid. Examples of histamine receptor blockers include: famotidine, cimetidine, ranitidine.

Another class of drug that helps to protect the gastric mucosa is called protectants. They work by coating the ulcers in a way that gastric acid cannot come in contact with the ulcer. Sucralfate is a commonly prescribed protectant that doctors use for peptic ulcer disease. Antacids can also be prescribed to help neutralize the acid already present in the stomach.

Peptic ulcer is a serious condition and requires immediate attention from a gastroenterologist. You should thus visit a hospital at your earliest with a competent gastroenterologist panel. The National Medical Center is one such facility.